AH2922 Map projections and reference systems, 9c
Autumn semester 2011, period 2

Last updated by Huaan Fan on 2

1.  Introduction

Coordinates of ground points are the most fundamental component in geospatial databases. Coordinates should be well defined mathematically and physically. Knowledge on coordinate systems is important for understanding the processes of surveying and mapping as well as for understanding geospatial databases.

The first part of this course concerns mathematical definitions of coordinates with respect to a reference elliposid and the related computations on the surface of the reference ellipsoid. This topics is traditionally called ellipsoidal geodesy or geometrical geodesy or mathematical geodesy.

The second part of the course concerns mathematical transformation of points, lines and areas from the surface of a reference ellipsoid (or a sphere) to the map projection plane. This process is  called map projections. The subject of map projections is also called mathematical cartography.

The third part of the course concerns geodetic reference systems to which coordinates are practically defined and maintained on the surface of the earth. We will discuss traditional 2D horizontal coordinate systems based on astrogeodetic triangulation and 1D vertical reference systems based on precise levelling. Modern 3D reference systems will also be treated, including  geodedynamic phenomena which influence the definition and maintenance of modern GRS. To understand both traditional and modern GRS, astronomical concepts are essential. The course also introduces existing reference systems used in Sweden and internationally (ITRF, WGS 84,  EUREF 89, SWEREF 99), as well as transformations between different types of coordinates and between different reference systems.

The course includes 16 lectures and 11 computational exercises. A complete description of the  course's objective, contents, requirements, etc, can be found at KTH:s online Study handbook.

2.  List of Teachers

  Huaan Fan course co-ordinator, examiner, responsible for all lectures
  Amin Alizadeh teaching assistant, responsible for exercises

3.  Required reading

Fan, H. (2011). Theoretical Geodesy. KTH
Fan, H. (2011). Exercise Problems in Map Projections and Reference Systems. KTH

4.  Requirements

To pass the course, students must pass one written examination (TEN1: 5c) and complete all  exercises  (ÍVN1: 4c).

5.  Time Schedule 

L = lecture,  = exercise, TEN = Written examination. Red colour indicates changes.

L E Day Date Time Room Topics
L1   Tue 111025 10-12 L41 Introduction. Reference ellipsoids
  E1 Tue 111025 13-17 GEO-Lab Spherical earth and reference ellipsoids
L2   Thur 111027 10-12 B23 Coordinate systems on the ellipsoid
  E2 Thur 111027 13-17 GEO-Lab Computation of geodetic coordinates
L3   Fri 111028 10-12 L42 Geodetic lines and basic geodetic problems
  E3 Mon 111031 08-12 GEO-Lab Computation of geodetic lines
L4   Tue 111101 10-12 L41 General projection theory. Deformation parameters
  E4 Tue 111101 13-17 Geo-Lab Calculation of deformation parameters
L5   Thur 111103 10-12 B23 Azimuthal projections. Conical projections.
L6   Fri 111104 10-12 L42 Cylindrical projections
L7   Mon 111107 13-15 L42 Geodetic astronomy
L8   Tue 111108 10-12 L41 Concept of time. Astronomical positioning
L9   Tue 111108 15-17 L43 Astrogeodetic triangulation and ellipsoidal datums
  E5 Thur 111110 08-12 GEO-Lab Azimuthal projections. Conical projections.
  E6 Thur 111110 13-17 GEO-Lab Cylindrical projections. UTM.
  E7 Tue 111115 08-12 GEO-Lab Geodetic astronomy
  E8 Tue 111115 13-17 GEO-Lab Ellipsoidal datums
L10   Tue 111122 10-12 L42 Gravity, geoid and height systems
  E9 Tue 111122 13-17 GEO-Lab Gravity, geoid and height systems
L11   Wed 111123 13-15 B24 Geodynamics: tectonics, land uplifet and earth tide
L12   Thur 111124 10-12 L41 Earth rotation: polar motion, precession, nutation
L13   Tue 111129 10-12 L42 ICRF and ITRF. WGS 84, EUREF 89, SWEREF
  E10 Tue 111129 13-17 GEO-Lab Earth rotation. Transformation from ICRF to ITRF
L14   Wed 111130 13-15 L44 Estimation of Helmert transformation parameters
L15   Thur 111201 10-12 B23 Summary of the course. Old exam.
  E11 Tue 111206 13-17 GEO-Lab Estimation of Helmert transformation parameters
TEN1   Fri 111216 14-18 M33 Written examination



Back to master programme's curriculum page