A textbook for geomatics students and engineers

Theory of Errors and 
Least squares Adjustment

by  Huaan Fan


Theory of errors and least squares adjustment is an important subject for all geodesists, photogrammetrists and surveyors. This is because all geodetic and photogrammetric measurements contain errors, which must be treated using statistical and numerical methods. The main objectives here are:

  • to eliminate discrepancies (misclosures) caused by measurement errors

  • to find the optimal results based on certain criteria and 

  • to obtain theoretical insights which can help us do measurements and computations in a better way

Theory of errors is an old subject in geodesy and photogrammetry. There are a number of literatures available. This textbook covers not only classical topics (e.g. error propagation, error ellipses, condition adjustment, adjustment by elements, etc), but also new topics such as generalized matrix inverses and free network adjustment, estimation of variance-covariance components, detection of gross errors, prediction and filtering.

The compendium has been revised in August 2010. New additions include: observation equations for GPS measurements and concept of uncertainty. 

For more details of the textbook, readers can check the "Table of Contents".

This textbook is used for two courses in the international master programme "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" offered by the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Price for a hardcopy for KTH students is 350 SEK, approximately 50 USD or 40 €.

Senast uppdaterad 2010-08-27.